ISBN 3-11-012324-X I. We use cookies to distinguish you from other users and to provide you with a better experience on our websites. [8] Meanwhile, it developed into /j/ in Type B syllables, which developed palatalisation in Middle Chinese. [11] Furthermore, MC /l/ was said to have derived from an OC /r/.[12][13]. Most modern varieties can be viewed as descendants of Late Middle Chinese (LMC) of c. 1000 AD. A Handbook of Old Chinese Phonology William Hubbard Baxter, Associate Professor of Linguistics and Asian Languages and Cultures William H Baxter Snippet view - 1992. 371: Droits d'auteur. Access to the complete content on Oxford Handbooks Online requires a subscription or purchase. Sagart pointed out, however, that these changes are not true if the lateral is preceded by a reconstructed prefix. [1. 347: Index . Broadly speaking, Old Chinese phonology (Shànggǔ yÄ«n 上古音) is the sound system of Old Chinese, the language of the early first millennium BCE that underlies the rhymes (=rimes) of the ShÄ«jÄ«ng 詩經 (the Book of Odes) and the system of phonetic elements in the early Chinese script.An early stage of this language … View all » Common terms and phrases. Although the Chinese textual record provides relatively direct evidence of early Chinese vocabulary and syntax, the nature of the nonalphabetic Chinese writing system obscures the tremendous changes in pronunciation that have occurred over the past 3,000 years. Yunjing (734 words) case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article columns. Old Chinese Phonology Zev Handel; Middle Chinese Phonology and Qieyun Wuyun Pan and Hongming Zhang; Early Mandarin Seen from Ancient Altaic Scripts: The Rise of a New Phonological Standard Zhongwei Shen; Languages and Dialects. Studies and Monographs; 64. Preview. New Approaches to Chinese Word Formation: Morphology, Phonology and the ... Jerome L. Packard Aperçu limité - … кэса- > kca- > cca- > cja-. Although the writing system does not describe sounds directly, shared phonetic components of the most ancient Chinese characters are believed to link words that were pronounced similarly at that time. This chapter describes the basic sources and methodology for the reconstruction of Old Chinese phonology, the history of the field through the 20th century, and the most recent developments that have radically transformed our understanding of Old Chinese phonological … Call for Abstracts We invite interested scholars to submit abstracts on Old Chinese phonology, Chinese paleography, or the position of Chinese within … In general, Mandarin preserves the LMC system of medials and main vowels fairly well (better than most other varieties) but drastically reduces the system of codas (final consonants). His books include The Historical Phonology of Tibetan, Burmese, and Chinese (2019), A Lexicon of Tibetan Verb Stems as Reported by the Grammatical Tradition (2010) and Old Tibetan Inscriptions (2009), co-authored with Kazushi Iwao. Using Baxter's reconstruction, the triggering circumstances can be expressed simply as whenever a labial is followed by a glide /j/ and the main vowel is a back vowel; other reconstructions word the rule differently. Min varieties, however, have both kinds of words in yang classes as well as yin classes. [This is a translation of the … The following topics will be covered: overview of Old Chinese phonology new features in the Baxter-Sagart system (the A/B distinction; the uvulars) incorporating uncertainty in the reconstructions strategy of research morphology and word families Old Chinese dialects the Chinese script as an imperfect syllabary enriched with … The MC palatal sibilant reflex, sy, is only found in Type B syllables. A Handbook of Old Chinese Phonology | William H. Baxter | download | B–OK. Although the writing system does not describe sounds directly, shared phonetic components of the most ancient Chinese characters are believed to link words that were pronounced at that time; the oldest surviving Chinese … Cultural attitudes that treated Koreans, Tibetans, Mongolians and most other foreigners as "barbarians" made it difficult for scientific knowledge from these cultures to diffuse into China. proposes to reconstruct an Old Chinese derivational suffix *s to account for a series of tonal alternations in Middle Chinese.] Please login to your account first; Need help? Although the writing system does not describe sounds directly, shared phonetic components of the most ancient Chinese characters are believed to link words that were pronounced similarly at that time. searching for Old Chinese phonology 38 found (63 total) alternate case: old Chinese phonology. Categories: Linguistics\\Foreign. [9] Baxter pointed out xiesheng contacts between plosive series, sibilants and MC y-, and made the following reconstructions.[10]. Studies and Monographs [TiLSM] 64) (English Edition): Boutique Kindle - Linguistics : Amazon.fr Few changes to final consonants occur; the main ones are the loss of /j/ after a high vowel, the disappearance of /ɨ/ (which might or might not be reckoned as a final consonant) in the rhyme /-ɛɨ/, and (potentially) the appearance of /jŋ/ and /jk/ (which are suspect in various ways; see below). share | improve this question | follow | edited Feb 8 '17 at 13:38. dda. Chinese Phonology Conrad Bender Senior Paper Languages and Linguistics May 4,1988 . 311: Cognate objects and the realization of thematic structure . Obviously, this topic cannot be fully explored in a paper of this length. All modern Chinese varieties reflect such a split, which produces a new set of phonemic tones in most varieties due to later loss of voicing distinctions. L = sonorant initial consonant The Oxford Handbook of Chinese Linguistics, 5.2 The Value of Old Chinese Reconstruction, 5.3 Historical Linguistics and Old Chinese Reconstruction, 5.4 Bernhard Karlgren and the Origins of the Modern Field, 5.5 Features of Karlgren’s Old Chinese and Later Revisions, 5.5.7 The Old Chinese Type A/B Distinction, 5.7 Areas of Controversy and Future Directions. © Oxford University Press, 2018. Berlin ; New York : Mouton de Gruyter, 1992 (OCoLC)607898912 Online version: Baxter, William Hubbard, 1949-Handbook of old Chinese phonology. old-chinese. Presumably "softened stops" were actually fricatives of some sort, but it is unclear exactly what they were. When voiced stops became unvoiced in most varieties and triggered a tone split, words with these stops moved into new lowered (so-called yang) tone classes, while words with unvoiced stops appeared in raised (so-called yin) tone classes. The split tones then merge back together except for Middle Chinese tone 1; hence Middle Chinese tones 1,2,3 become Mandarin tones 1,2,3,4. From Early Middle Chinese to Late Middle Chinese, From Late Middle Chinese to Standard Mandarin, Learn how and when to remove this template message, characters sharing the same phonetic component, Old Chinese phonology § Evidence from Min Chinese, Introduction to Chinese Historical Phonology, Reconstruction of Middle Chinese and Old Chinese as well as intermediate forms, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Historical_Chinese_phonology&oldid=984484657, Articles needing additional references from August 2012, All articles needing additional references, Articles containing Chinese-language text, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from October 2014, All Wikipedia articles needing clarification, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from June 2012, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, The strong influence and long tradition of Chinese writing, which included no concept of an. PRINTED FROM OXFORD HANDBOOKS ONLINE (www.oxfordhandbooks.com). File: PDF, 102.92 MB. Scholars generally assume that these additional Proto-Min sounds reflect distinctions in Old Chinese that vanished in Early Middle Chinese but remained in Proto-Min. Baxter (1992), 42. … For example, it could be argued that Min varieties descend from a Middle Chinese dialect where retroflex stops merged back into alveolar stops instead of merging with retroflex sibilants. Other changes occurring in most modern varieties, such as the loss of initial voiced obstruents and corresponding tone split, are areal changes that spread across existing dialects; possibly the loss of chongniu distinctions can be viewed in the same way. Scholars have attempted to reconstruct the phonology of Old Chinese from documentary evidence. [2], Additionally, the OC lateral consonant /*l/ is shown to have fortified to a coronal plosive /d/ in Type A syllables. Old Chinese phonology and Reconstructions of Old Chinese seem to be two things that keep cropping up every now and again. Austric Languages Baoya Chen and Zihe Li; The Austronesian Languages of Taiwan Paul Jen-kuei Li; Tibeto-Burman George van Driem; Chinese … You could not be signed in, please check and try again. This paper will address the very large topic of Chinese phonology. V+ = voiced initial consonant (not sonorant). In any. Until recently, no reconstructions of Old Chinese specifically accounted for the Proto-Min distinctions, but the recent reconstruction of William Baxter and Laurent Sagart accounts for both voiced aspirates and softened stops. Baxter (1992), 42. … Some Notes on Chinese Historical Phonology 281. sequences are no doubt possible, e.g. The phonological structure of each syllable consists of a nucleus consisting of a vowel (which can be a monophthong, diphthong, or even a triphthong in certain varieties) with an optional onset or coda consonant as well as a tone. The following is a basic summary; more information can be found in the table of EMC finals in Middle Chinese. A brief sketch of Old Chinese phonology in the system of Baxter and Sagart (2014) Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Handbooks Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice). This position, whereby OC /l/ underwent fortition to become a plosive, is upheld by Baxter. However, this argument cannot be made if there are distinctions in Min that do not appear in EMC (and which reflect ancient features going back to Old Chinese or – ultimately – even Proto-Sino-Tibetan, so that they cannot be explained as secondary developments), and this does indeed appear to be the case. Send-to-Kindle or Email . … for Old Chinese, little direct evidence is available for establishing the early forms of specific words. The oldest surviving Chinese … (Some syllables with original Mandarin tone 3 move to tone 4; see below.) This page was last edited on 20 October 2020, at 09:32. Old Chinese … Public users are able to search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter without a subscription. The appearance of Professor W.H. Scholars have attempted to reconstruct the phonology of Old Chinese from documentary evidence. His research interests include historical phonology, Chinese dialectology, Tibeto-Burman languages, Sino-Tibetan comparison and Asian writing systems. As Chinese is written with logographic characters, not alphabetic or syllabary, the methods employed in Historical Chinese phonology differ considerably from those employed in, for example, Indo-European linguistics; reconstruction is more difficult because, unlike Indo-European languages, no phonetic spellings were used. Early Middle Chinese (EMC) labials (/p, pÊ°, b, m/) become Late Middle Chinese (LMC) labiodentals (/f, f, bv, ʋ/, possibly from earlier affricates)[14] in certain circumstances involving a following glide. Background. 1. Main A Handbook of Old Chinese Phonology. Depending on the linguist, the distinction is variously thought to reflect either presence or absence of prefixes, an accentual or length distinction on the main vowel, or some sort of register distinction (e.g. Berlin ; New York : Mouton de Gruyter, 1992 (OCoLC)623312608: Document Type: Book: All Authors / Contributors: William … searching for Old Chinese phonology 39 found (64 total) alternate case: old Chinese phonology. There are some instances where a vowel is not used as a nucleus. The postulated development of the softened stops is very similar to the development of voiced fricatives in Vietnamese, which likewise occur in both yin and yang varieties and are reconstructed as developing from words with minor syllables. All final stop consonants are lost, and final nasals are reduced to a distinction between /n/ and /ŋ/. In Min, the corresponding words still have alveolar stops. 329: Headedness in Chinese . The additional three series are voiced aspirated (or breathy voiced), unvoiced "softened", and voiced "softened". Are there any recordings of Old Chinese pronunciations available? Please subscribe or login to access full text content. Keywords: Old Chinese phonology, reconstruction methodology, sources, history of Old Chinese reconstruction. acute initials back vowels Baxter initial type Chapter character chongniu finals cluster Coblin coda Dai Zhen dialects division-Ill finals division-IV Dong Duan Yucai Early Middle Chinese … The specific relationship between Middle Chinese and modern tones: V- = unvoiced initial consonant All Rights Reserved. An example is the series of retroflex stops in EMC, which developed from earlier alveolar stops followed by /r/, and which later merged with retroflex sibilants. Handbook of old Chinese phonology. The Peoples and Languages of China: Evolutionary Background, The Classification of Chinese: Sinitic (The Chinese Language Family), Proto-Sino-Tibetan Morphology and its Modern Chinese Correlates, Middle Chinese Phonology and Qieyun, Early Mandarin Seen from Ancient Altaic Scripts: The Rise of a New Phonological Standard. When this happens, the glide disappears. We now know that the phonological structure of Old Chinese— the Chinese of the first millennium BCE—was strikingly different from all modern forms of Chinese. Language: english. A Lexical Phonology of Mandarin Chinese . Amazon.com: A Handbook of Old Chinese Phonology (Trends in Linguistics: Studies & Monographs) (English and Chinese Edition) (9783110123241): Baxter, William H.: … We now know that the phonological structure of Old Chinese— the Chinese of the first millennium BCE—was strikingly different from all modern forms of Chinese. Pages: 922 / 933. Their reflexes in Middle Chinese are postulated to be: The j in parenthesis correspond to developments from a Type B syllable. According to Baxter, however, labiodentalization might have occurred independently of each other in different areas. The following table illustrates the evolution of initials from Early Middle Chinese, through Late Middle Chinese, to Standard Mandarin. This has caused scholars to reconstruct voiced aspirates (probably realized as breathy voiced consonants) in Proto-Min, which develop into unvoiced aspirates in yang-class words. Baxter's Handbook is an important event in the field of Chinese historical phonology … According to them, voiced aspirates reflect Old Chinese stops in words with particular consonant prefixes, while softened stops reflect Old Chinese stops in words with a minor syllable prefix, so that the stop occurred between vowels. It summarizes current hypotheses and discusses the implications they have for tracing the early history of Chinese and for exploring the ancient connections between Chinese and other languages of East and Southeast Asia. Scholars have attempted to reconstruct the phonology of Old Chinese from documentary evidence. To a large degree, Late Middle Chinese (LMC) of c. 1000 AD can be viewed as the direct ancestor of all Chinese varieties except Min Chinese; in other words, attempting to reconstruct the parent language of all varieties excluding Min leads no farther back than LMC. Rhyme dictionary Qiyin lüe William Baxter, A Handbook of Old Chinese Phonology (Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 1992), 42. US$ 241.45 / DM 338.- (HB). Download books for free. The tones do not change phonemically. The result is that the yin classes have words with both aspirated and unaspirated stops, while the yang classes have only one of the two, depending on how the formerly voiced stops developed. Compared with EMC, there were no palatal or retroflex consonants, but there were. The following changes are in approximate order. Old Chinese Phonology - Volume 4 - S. E. Yakhontov. For example, all modern varieties other than Min Chinese have labiodental fricatives (e.g. Not only does it not reflect the development of labiodental fricatives or other LMC-specific changes, but a number of features already present in EMC appear never developed. Rather than provide an exhaustive study, I shall attempt to give an introduction to Chinese phonology, and then note some particular problems in the study of Chinese … The oldest surviving Chinese … Trends in Linguistics. The non-Western outlook of the terminology and concepts used in Chinese historical phonology make this field … This book introduces a new linguistic reconstruction of the phonology, morphology, and lexicon of Old Chinese, the first Sino-Tibetan language to be reduced to writing. Such "softened stops" occur in both yin and yang classes, suggesting that Proto-Min had both unvoiced and voiced "softened stops". Berlin / New York: Mouton de Gruyter, 1992. For example, some variants retain OC /m/ before the glide, while in other variants, it had developed into a labiodental initial (å¾®): compare Cantonese 文 man4 and Mandarin 文 wén. For questions on access or troubleshooting, please check our FAQs, and if you can''t find the answer there, please contact us. Yunjing (726 words) case mismatch in snippet view article find links to article columns. Autres éditions - Tout afficher. It provides evidence for the reconstruction of a labiovelar series in Old Chinese, and, taking as a model the development of tonal oppositions from syllable finals in Vietnamese, proposes to reconstruct an Old Chinese derivational suffix *s to account for a series of tonal alternations in Middle Chinese. Although the writing system does not describe sounds directly, shared phonetic components of the most ancient Chinese characters are believed to link words that were pronounced similarly at that time. If you have purchased a print title that contains an access token, please see the token for information about how to register your code. This chapter describes the basic sources and methodology for the reconstruction of Old Chinese phonology, the history of the field through the 20th century, and the most recent developments that have radically transformed our understanding of Old Chinese phonological structure. Furthermore, Baxter considers all the distinctions of the Qieyun to be real, while many of them are clearly anachronisms that no longer applied to any living form of the language in 600 AD. Reduced to a distinction of some sort between type-A and type-B syllables chapter without a subscription of by! 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